Children are the offspring of mothers. Children start out as toddlers, who stay in their parent's house until the age of 4. When a child turns 4, they'll be able to leave house, collect food, visit entertainment venues, and attend a grade school if there's an opening available for them. Once a child turns 13, they're considered an adult and will be able to either get a job or go to high school.
In Tropico 5, children are considered adults at the age of 16 unless child labor is active. Children now receive their grade school education from the High School.
Children can't be targeted with any special actions.
Children need at least one parent living with them. If both a child's parents die or leave the island, the child will disappear (not in Tropico 1, in which the child grows up without parents).